Meal Planning For Intestinal Disease

healthyfood

 

Specific diet plans are often prescribed for gastrointestinal symptoms like bloating or gastrointestinal diseases like short bowel syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and motility disorders.  These diets often involve manipulating the amount of fiber, FODMAPs and fat you eat.  Use this guide when working with your doctor and nutritionist in order to prepare healthy meals made from mostly whole foods that fall within your specific diet plan.

 

GRAINS (low fat)

 

Lower fiber

Lower FODMAPs: white rice, cream of rice, white rice noodles, white rice pasta, polenta, grits, cornmeal, corn bread, corn tortillas, puffed rice, rice cakes, corn flakes and other unsweetened cereals

 

Higher FODMAPs: cream of wheat, farina, refined white flour noodles/pasta/pancakes/tortillas, white bread, pita bread, refined white flour muffins/rolls, plain refined flour crackers like saltines

 

Higher fiber

Lower FODMAPs: oatmeal, buckwheat, millet, quinoa, spelt, sorghum, brown or wild rice

 

Higher FODMAPs: whole wheat noodles/pasta/pancakes/tortillas, whole wheat bread/rolls/crackers

 

Avoid

Pastries, donuts, cakes and other processed desserts, flavored cereals or pancakes with syrup

 

VEGETABLES (low fat)

 

Lower fiber

Lower FODMAPs: cooked vegetables including potatoes, plantains, squash, carrots, zucchini, turnip, tomatoes, green beans, ginger, parsnip, pumpkin.  12oz per day of fresh all-vegetable juices, seaweed

 

Higher FODMAPs: broccoli, cabbage, asparagus, Brussel sprouts, cauliflower, bell pepper, beets, eggplant, okra, fennel, garlic, leek, onion, shallots, mushrooms, sweet corn

 

Higher fiber

Raw vegetables or leafy greens: eat only in small amounts as tolerated

 

Avoid

Creamed, deep-fried or other highly processed vegetables

 

FRUITS (low fat)

 

Lower fiber

Lower FODMAPs: peeled, cooked or unsweetened canned fruits with seeds removed including bananas, cantaloupe, grapefruit, grapes, kiwi, oranges, papaya, pineapple, strawberries

 

Higher FODMAPs: peeled, cooked or unsweetened canned fruits with seeds removed including apples, applesauce, apricots, pears, mango, watermelon, apricots, cherries, plums, peaches, blackberries, cherries, nectarines, prunes

 

Higher fiber

Raw peeled or unpeeled fruits: eat only in small amounts as tolerated

 

Avoid

Dried fruits, fruit canned in syrup, fruit juice or fruit drinks

 

MEATS (low fiber, low FODMAP, low/high fat depending on type)

 

High quality, well-prepared chicken, turkey, beef, pork, fish, shellfish, eggs

 

Avoid

Raw meats, fried meats, processed meats

 

DAIRY (low fiber, low/high fat depending on type)

 

Lower FODMAPs: lactose-free milk, oat/rice/soy milk (check additives), hard cheeses, brie, camembert, lactose-free yogurt

 

Higher FODMAPs: milk from cows, soymilk made with soybeans, goats or sheep, yogurt, soft unripened cheeses eg cottage cheese, cream cheese, ricotta, mascarpone

 

Avoid

Sweetened yogurts, flavored milks

 

FATS

 

Lower fiber

Lower FODMAPs: vegetable oils, olives, coconut (milk, cream, flesh), butter

 

Higher FODMAPs: avocado

 

Higher fiber

Lower FODMAPs: nuts and nut butters including brazil nuts, walnuts, pine nuts, almonds, chestnuts, coconut, hazelnuts, macademia nuts, peanuts, pecans, seeds (chia, sunflower, pumpkin, sesame)

 

Higher FODMAPs: nuts and nut butters including cashews, pistachios, tahini paste

 

Note: some patients may not tolerate nuts/seeds or nut/seed butters.  Chew whole nuts/seeds well and begin with a trial of a single serving of nut/seed butter

 

LEGUMES (high fiber, low fat)

 

Lower FODMAPs: chickpeas, lentils snow peas

 

Higher FODMAPs: kidney beans, lima beans, mung beans, sugar snap peas, soy beans, split peas

 

Note: some patients (especially those without a colon) may do better with limiting legumes

 

FOOD ADDITIVES

 

Lower FODMAPs: A variety of herbs and spices including basil, cilantro, coriander, curry leaves, fenugreek, lemongrass, mint, oregano, parsley, rosemary, tarragon, thyme, all spice, pepper, cardamom, chili powder, cinnamon, cloves, cumin, curry powder, fennel seeds, mustard seeds, nutmeg, paprika, saffron, star anise, turmeric, asafetida powder (onion substitute), baking powder, baking soda, cacao powder, dark chocolate, stevia (sweetener), tamari, Bragg’s liquid aminos (soy sauce substitute), dark chocolate, strawberry jam, miso paste, maple syrup, mustard, tamarind paste, tomato sauce, apple cider vinegar, rice wine vinegar, balsamic vinegar, wasabi, hot sauce, tabasco sauce, nutritional yeast, garlic infused oil, maple syrup

 

Higher FODMAPs: agave, honey, mixed berry jam, soy sauce

 

Avoid

High fructose corn syrup, sugar-free sweets with polyols (usually ending in –ol or isomalt), artificial sweeteners including maltitol, mannitol, sorbitol, xylitol

 

DRINKS

 

Lower FODMAPs: one glass of beer or wine, clear spirits like vodka, gin, whiskey, coffee (espresso, instant, regular/decaf), some teas (weak black or chai, weak fruit/herbal, green, peppermint, white), iced tea, oral rehydration solutions, soup broth, water (may need to limit depending on hydration needs)

 

Higher FODMAPs: more than one glass of beer/wine, coconut water, rum, sports drinks, some teas (strong black or chai, dandelion, fennel, chamomile, herbal, oolong)

 

Avoid

Alcohol when possible, more than 4oz coffee, tea or iced tea per day, flavored or sweetened coffees or teas, fruit juices or drinks, sodas, sugar free drinks, supplements like Boost, Ensure etc.

 

OXALATES

Oxalate-rich foods include tea, coffee, chocolate, nuts, soy products, green leafy vegetables, sweet potatoes, celery, berries, tangerines, rhubarb, rutabaga, wheat germ.  Talk to your doctor and nutritionist to see if you need to avoid foods high in oxalates